Seismic stratigraphic techniques are nowadays part of the standard routine for interpreting seismic datasets and it is a fundamental tool for the E and P business. Its added value has been demonstrated over the past few decennia by an impressive proven track record in green field hydrocarbon exploration. Refinement and more diligent processing techniques (e.g., PrSDM, multi-focusing, full wavefield processing) necessitate a systematic approach towards 3D seismic interpretation. Seismic stratigraphy represents a coherent method for the analysis of sedimentary basin fills. The change in scale of observation, from individual outcrops to the regional framework, has been an eye-opener to many geoscientists. The results of seismic stratigraphic analysis form solid input for integrated quantitative subsurface reservoir studies. Better reservoir management decisions are made possible, when the reservoir characterisation approach is combined with 4D monitoring of the hydrocarbon exploitation and a feedback loop is adopted in the evaluations. Optimisation of the production in existing fields augments the ultimate recovery rate and this has a significant impact on the revenues generated from proven reserves. The seismic method improves the accuracy of subsurface forecasts and in consequence reservoir simulations are better matched to the observed production history. Seismic stratigraphy provides prediction details to shared earth model that were not available before. The benefits are documented by many case histories worldwide.
The textbook summarizes basic seismic interpretation techniques for sedimentary basin fills. A basic overview of seismic processing techniques is presented. The benefits of integrated reservoir studies for hydrocarbon exploration are demonstrated. These study techniques also apply to other geoscience domains like: mineral exploration, archaeology, environmental studies, C02 sequestration. Topics are presented from a practical point of view with abundant illustrations to support various case histories. The reader (students as well as professional geophysicists, geologists and reservoir engineers) is taken from an introductory to a more advanced study level. A wide range of interpretation issues are covered, all the way from 2D to 3D and even 4D with a multi-component approach. The link with sedimentology and depositional facies models is made. Some aspects of seismic sequence stratigraphy and structural deformation basin analysis are presented, but these topics will be described in more detail in the next volume of the series.
Table of contents
1 Introduction. 7
2 The seismic reflection method and its constraints. 17
3 Seismic stratigraphic techniques. 107
4 Depositional environment and lithofacies interpretation. 217
5 Seismic interpretation and reservoir characterisation. 377
6 Concluding remarks. 413
7 Acknowledgements. 421
General disclaimer. 423
About the authors. 467