Soft computing techniques are emerging as valuable methodologies capable of solving a wide spectrum of complex geoscientific problems. In this much needed monograph an in-depth but easy to follow overview of Neural Networks (NN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), and Genetic Algorithms (GA) technologies is provided and a comprehensive collection of recent applications of these technologies in the petroleum industry is highlighted.
This monograph would be invaluable for geophysicists, geologists, and petroleum engineers who are interested in adapting new technologies in their work. While some technical issues and basic mathematics will be introduced, the focus will be to familiarize the reader with NN, FL and GA concepts and why they have emerged as leading tools for various applications including those in the oil industry.
Some interesting topics covered are:
– Artificial neurons versus ‘biological neurons’ of the human brain
– Fuzzy set versus ‘crisps’ set, Fuzzy functions
– Evolutionary computing versus Darwinian evolution
– Strengths and weaknesses of NN, FL and GA and how to integrate these techniques for optimal results.
The monograph includes a complete and stand alone seismic interpretation software, OpendTect, and a 3D test data set. This enables the reader to test many of the concepts introduced in the book.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Artificial Neutral Networks
– Why ANN?
– What are ANNs?
– Biological Neurons
– Artificial neurons
– Different Types of Learning and Training
– Different types of ANNs
– Pre-Processing of ANN Input Data
– Combining ANN with Human Intelligence
Chapter 2 – An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic
– Formal Treatment of Fuzzy Logic
– Some Definitions in Fuzzy Logic
– Fuzzy Extensions of Classical Mathematics
– Fuzzy Systems
Chapter 3 – Fundamentals of Evolutionary Computing and Genetic Algorithms
– Natural Evolution
– Genetic Algorithms
– A Numerical example
– Detailed Treatment of the Genetic Algorithms
– Formulating a GA for a Given Problem
– Evolutionary Programming
– A Few Oil Industry Applications
– Glossary of Genetic Terminologies
Chapter 4 – Integration of Different Soft Computing Techniques
– Strength and Weakness of Different Soft Computing Techniques
– Neuro-Fuzzy Methods
– Oil Industry Applications of NF, NG an FG
App. I – Neutral network applications. First Break, March 2004
App. II – Fuzzy Logic applications. First Break, April 2004
App. III – Evaluation computing and other aspects of soft computing. First Break, June 2004.
App. IV – Neutral network experiments with OpendTect